Non-Molluscan Marine Biology Sites





Must see pages: Massive amounts of good educational and up to date scientific knowledge

Annelida (Worms): Polychaete (aka "bristleworm")
Marine worms & Segmented Worms (Annelida, 8,800 species including the common earthworm and leeches)

Tree of Life
: an excellent place to start

(Lamp shells: 350 species) clam-like marine animals
Tree of Life: an excellent place to start

(Corals, Jellyfish, Hydroids, Sea Anemones and other stingers):  There are some 9,500 species of these water creatures, which are sometimes called Coelenterates.
Tree of Life: an excellent place to start
  • The Cnidaria Home Page: This site is maintained at
    the University of California

  • Cnidaria (Coelenterata): by the Tree of Life Web Project

  • Introduction to the Cnidaria:  UC Berkeley:  “The Greek word "cnidos" means "stinging nettle," and that's how the Cnidaria got its name and definition. Cnidarians are characterized by stinging cells called nematocysts or cnidocysts, which when disturbed eject a barbed thread and often poison as well.”

  • Bluebottle or Portuguese Man-of-War, The - pamphlet from the Australian Museum reports on Physalia physalis..

  • Sea Anemones: Catalogue of species, bibliography of literature in which they were described, inventory of type specimens, distribution maps, and images.  This database contains data for 1355 nominal species of sea anemones.

  • Sea Anemones:  “sea anemone usually attaches itself to rocks or coral. They have a central mouth which is surrounded by tentacles with nematocysts, stinging cells that paralyze and entangle small marine animals.”

  • Hexacorallians of the World :

  • Hydrozoan Society: Dedicated to the Study of Hydrozoan Biology

  • the Jelly Zone:  "They're slimy, oozy and flimsy.   Misconceptions abound.  They lead lives of mystery, even to scientists who devote years studying their secretive habits.  Jellyfish and other gelatinous animals like comb jellies, pteropods and salps are actually among the most beautiful creatures of the sea.  And their goal in life is not to sting people.   The Jellies Zone will reveal some of their beauty and open your eyes to the wondrous world of gelatinous zooplankton!”

  • Jellyfish Facts: Jellyfish facts provides information about jellyfish, helping people to understand these beautiful and interesting creatures.

  • Mesopelagic Medusae - hydrozoans that live at midwater depths.  Great pictures of jellyfish found in Monterey Bay.

  • Worldwide Cnidaria Web Site: "the major group of invertebrates that includes the sea anemones, corals, jellyfishes, hydroids, and animals that contain 'cnida' stinging capsules..."


Coral Reef:


Arthropoda: Crustacea: 
(amphipods, isopods, shrimp, ostracods, krill, etc.: about 42,000 species of crustacea)
Tree of Life: an excellent place to start


Chordata: (Animals)
Tree of Life: an excellent place to start
  • Tree of Life:"The Phylum Chordata includes the well-known vertebrates (fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals). The vertebrates and hagfishes together comprise the taxon Craniata. The remaining chordates are the tunicates (Urochordata), lancelets (Cephalochordata), and, possibly, some odd extinct groups. With few exceptions, chordates are active animals with bilaterally symmetric bodies that are longitudinally differentiated into head, trunk and tail. The most distinctive morphological features of chordates are the notochord, nerve cord, and visceral clefts and arches..." Homepage

  • UC Berkely: From sea otters to sea squirts: "The Chordata is the animal phylum with which everyone is most intimately familiar, since it includes humans and other vertebrates. However, not all chordates are vertebrates..."

From here, I will only be dealing with the Marine species of Chordates

1.  Marine Mammals:  Class Mammalia

I. Order Carnivora includes five families of marine mammals:

  • A. Suborder Pinnipedia
    • Family Otariidae: (Sea lions and fur seals)
    • Family Phocidae: (True seals)
    • Family Odobenidae: (Walruses)
  • B. Suborder Fissipedia
    • Family Mustelidea: (Sea otters)
    • Family Ursidae: Polar bears are designated as marine mammals because they depend on the ocean for a majority of their food.

II. Order Cetacea: Whales, dolphins, and porpoises are completely aquatic, they cannot live on land.

  • A. Suborder Odontoceti:(Toothed whales include dolphins, porpoises, and whales)
  • B. Suborder Mysticeti: (Baleen whales)

III. Order Sirenia: Dugongs and manatees live in warm or tropical waters and feed on plants.

  • Otters: (Suborder Fissipedia includes all other marine mammals in the Order Carnivora except pinnipeds. This suborder is no longer formally recognized, but the adjective "fissiped", meaning paw or pad-footed, is still used to describe these animals. )

    • Discovery Online - Sea Otters

    • Friends of the Sea Otter, a non-profit organization:  Lots of interesting info on sea otters.

    • - Your Source for Otter Fun, Facts, and Faces homepage. Otternet has a wealth of interesting facts on otters. Our 50 + pages will help you with getting the information you need. Otternet is the largest resource on the Internet for otter information

    • WildCam: Otters @
  • Manatee and dugong:
    • About Manatees:"Manatees, also known as sea cows, belong to the order Sirenia. There are four living species in the order Sirenia. The four living species are: the West Indian manatee, the West African manatee, the Amazonian manatee, and the dugong. There was a fifth species, the Steller's seacow. However, in 1741 it was hunted to extinction, only 27 years after it's discovery in the Bering Sea..."

    • Call of the Siren:  Manatee and Dugong Research, Education and Conservation

    • Dugong Information Kit:  by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority

    • The Dugong (sometimes refered to as a "Seacow") is a mammal, that is, it suckles its young.

    • Kids Only Manatees & Dugongs:  Illustrated by Mary Beath;  Written by KerrieKuzmier  and Jennifer McCann

    • Manatees:  by Sea World Educational Services online

    • Rothauscher's Dugong Page On this site, you can listen to a talkative male dugong, take part in their interactive maps or visit thier links to other dugong information pages.

    • Save the Manatee Club:

  • Porpoise & Dolphins:  (Cetaceans)
    • Cetacea: "Welcome to Cetacea - the site which provides you with complete background information on every species of whale, dolphin and porpoise known to humankind - so either search for a specific species or simply browse through the site!..."

    • Cetaceans by UC Berkeley

    • David's Whale and Dolphin Watch “Welcome to David's Dolphin and Whale photos, one of the largest collection of dolphin and whale pictures on the Web! This is the place for all fans of whales and dolphins..”. This site has some nice pictures & sounds

    • Dolphins Around the World:  Great photos along with a few facts of individual dolphin species.

    • Dolphin Synergy:  A virtual journey into Dolphin Hyperspace by Daniel McCulloch

    • Online Zoologists: Cetacea:

    • Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises of the Cetacea Order: NOAA: "Whales, dolphins, and porpoises all belong to the same taxonomic order called cetaceans. ..."

  • Seals, Sea Lions and Walruses: ( Suborder Pinnipedia are "flipper-footed" marine mammals. Pinnipeds can safely come out on land to rest, breed, and give birth, and are comprised of three families:)

  • Whales:  (Toothed and Baleen) (Cetaceans)
    • Cetacea: "Welcome to Cetacea - the site which provides you with complete background information on every species of whale, dolphin and porpoise known to humankind - so either search for a specific species or simply browse through the site!..."

    • Center for Whale Research conducts and supports research on whales, dolphins, and porpoises with long term photo-identification projects.

    • Gateways to Cetacean Sites and Pages on the World -Wide -Web: by the The Oceania Project - Caring for Whales, Dolphins and the Oceans

    • Whales, All about: by the Enchanted

    • Whale Web:This is a good resource page on cetaceans

    • Cetacean Society International:  Welcome to Cetacean Society International. CSI is an all volunteer,  non-profit conservation, education, and research organization based in the USA, with volunteer representatives in 26 countries around the world.

2.   Fish:  Class Pisces:

  • Class Pisces: These are Aquatic animals found in fresh water or sea water. Body is streamlined. Paired and unpaired fins present. Tail is muscular and used for propulsion and steering. Internal skeleton. Is cartilaginous or bony. Respiration takes place by gills. Sexes are separate. External skeleton is in the form of scales.

Further Divided into these Categories:

  • Jawless Fishes (lampreys, hagfishes) Agnatha
  • Jawed Fish
    • Placodermi - extinct, scaly-skinned fishes or armour-jawed vertebrtes
    • Chondrichthyes - cartilaginous fishes (sharks, sawfish, chimeras and rays)
    • Osteichthyes - bony fishes. (largest, most diverse group; Osteichthyes account for about 96% of all fish species with more than more than 23,500 species)
      • Acanthocii: fossils
      • Actinopterygii: ray-finned fishes
      • Sarcopterygii (lobe-finned fishes and four-legged vertebrates)
        • Coelacanthiformes [coelacanths]
        • Ceratodontiformes [Australian lungfishes]
        • Lepidosireniformes [lungfishes]


I also found this classification

    • Osteichthyes ( bony fishes: account for about 96% of all fish species with more than more than 23,500 species)
      • subclass Dipnoi (lungfishes)
      • subclass Crossopterygii (coelacanths)
      • The subclass Actinopterygii includes all other living bony fishes. Actinopterygians are characterized by rayed fins.
Current Zoological Record Hierarchyby BIOSIS:
  • BonyFishes: (Osteicthyes)

    • The Aquarium Project: "This web site aims to act as a simple guide to the Identification of Sea Fish caught in and around the coastal waters of the United Kingdom, although at some time in the future we will include a sub-section for fresh water species as well...." 

    • Electronic Zoo by NetVet: 

      • FishFish - WWW Virtual Library”  From pets to sports to the living free fishes, I’m sure you will find   something here to get your attention.

    •  FINS:  The Fish Information Service  Another Great database for all things “Fishy”:

    • A great links page

  • Cartilaginous (Chondricthyes: Rays & Sharks)

  • Agnatha- Jawless Fishes (lampreys, hagfishes): Agnathans include the extinct OSTRACODERMS , and the living HAGFISHES and LAMPREYS - fishes adapted for life as scavengers or parasites.

  • Sharks, Predators of the Seas: by Jan Koetze
3.  Sea Turtles: Class Reptilia
  • Sea Turtles:

  • Sea Turtle Migration-Tracking Education Program:  “Through this web page, you can view a regularly updated map showing the migratory movements of endangered sea turtles being tracked by satellite. It is hoped that by providing this unique look at the migratory habits of sea turtles, you will also be compelled to learn more about sea turtle biology, the threats they face and the ways in which you can help protect marine turtles.”

  • Turtle A Page Devoted to Marine Turtles


(Comb jellies: 90 species)
Tree of Life: an excellent place to start


Phylum Echinodermata:
(Sea Urchins (Echinoidea'), Starfish (Asteroidea), Brittle Stars (Ophiuroidea),  Sand Dollars (Holothuroidea), Sea Cucumbers (Holothurians), Sea Lilies (Crinoidea) and all their relatives)
Tree of Life: an excellent place to start


Ectoprocta:  (Byozoans): 
Tree of Life: an excellent place to start


Marine Nematodes: (roundworms)
Tree of Life:


(Horsehair worms: approx 320 species)
Tree of Life


(Proboscis or ribbon worms; (Nemertea or Rhynchocoela):
Proboscis or ribbon worms; (Nemertea or Rhynchocoela): Nemertines are known as "ribbon worms" because some species reach up to 100 feet in length, although most are much shorter. About 900 species are known for the Nemertinea (also spelled Nemertina or Nemertini by different authors.
Tree of Life


Miscellaneous Sites
  •  Welcome to the worlds best source for info on marine life! “Here you'll learn about coral reefs. You can find information on anemones, corals, and of course fish! Mostly geared toward aquarims, each page gives detailed information about each creature including where it lives (naturally), what its requirements are in an aquarium, what it eats, and how difficult it is to care for in captivity.”

  • CSea: Welcome to the Cleveland Saltwater Enthusiasts’ Association.


  • New World Publications  Marine Life Learning Center:  A great place to learn about marine animals.   Also be sure to visit the Kids Corner:  

  • Reef Organisms /  Learn more about Reef Critters  by the students of C-3

  • Oceanography: information categorised by subject. See also other subjects. Please mail if you know of online information not in these lists. Please do not mail me to find someone's email address, or for general oceanographic information. For such information try posting to the sci.geo.oceanography news group. This list is maintained by voluntary effort, and by the goodwill of School of Mathematics UEA in allowing it to use school facilities.”

  • SeaWorld/Busch Gardens Animal Information Database: / www.buschgardens.or

  • Smithsonian: Resource Room:  A continually expanding list of resources to help you explore the Ocean Planet.  This is a WONDERFUL links page.


(Sponges; 10,000 species): 
The approximately 5,000 living sponge species are classified in the phylum Porifera, which is composed of three distinct groups, the Hexactinellida (glass sponges), the Demospongia, and the Calcarea (calcareous sponges).
  • An Introduction to the Porifera:  By UC Berkeley;  “Porifera are commonly referred to as sponges. An early branching event in the history of animals separated the sponges from other metazoans. As one would expect based on their phylogenetic position, fossil sponges are among the oldest known animal fossils, dating from the Late Precambrian….”

  • Marine Sponge: “The marine sponge is the oldest and simplest multicellular animal on earth, having originated over a billion years ago. Because of its simplicity, this creature has become a useful tool for medical researchers trying to unravel the workings of the human immune system.”

  • the Aquarium:  The Sponges: A General Overview :  By. Jim Wolf C.S.U.N. Marine Biologist; ODYSSEA ( MASLA ) Volume 1, Issue 4;  “Sponges are among the simplest of the macroscopic animals found in a marine aquarium. There are over 9000 species worldwide and most are found in marine environments.”

  • Phylum Porfera: U of Michigan

  • Porifera Biology on the WWW:


(Foraminiferans, amoeba, algae, diatoms,etc.) 

This is a Kingdom and depending on how you split things, this Kingdom contains from 20 to 50 distinct Phyla.

The Kingdom Protoctista is composed of three Subkingdoms:

  • Mastigobionta (Unicellular organisms commonly known as chytrids and water molds)
  • Myxobionta (Organisms which are animal-like in most of their life cycles, that is, they move around like amoeba and engulf bacteria and other solid matter)
  • Phycobionta: (The organisms in this Subkingdom are grouped in major Divisions based on their 1) reproductive cells, 2) pigment production and 3) food storage compounds.)

Kingdom Protoctista:

  • Greek protos, very first; ktistos, to establish: Protoctista: "Kingdom Protoctista is defined by exclusion: its members are neither animals (which develop from a blastula), plants (which develop from an embryo), fungi (which lack undulipodia and develop from spores), nor prokaryotes. They comprise the eukaryotic microorganisms and their immediate descendants: all nucleated algae (including the sea-weeds), undulipodiated (flagellated) water molds, the slime molds and slime nets, and the protozoa. Protoctist cells have nuclei and other characteristically eukaryotic properties; most have aerobiosis and respiration in mitochondria and 9+2 undulipodia at some stage of the life cycle. "

  • Museum of Natural History:  “This Kingdom is defined by exclusion: its members which are neither animals, plants, fungi, nor prokaryotes.” A full listing of Phylums is on this page and they are sooooo interesting. Link problems:

  • The Protoctist Kingdom (Protoctistae):  “The Protoctista Kingdom is a catch-all for the multicellular organism which don't fit into the Animal, Plant, or Fungus Kingdom.

  • Proctoctisa:


  • Tree of Life:
  • Foraminifers:

    • Foram Gallery:  by Brian Darnton (UK) & Wim van Egmond (NL):  “Foraminifera, or 'forams' as they are often called, are small marine creatures that build a delicate house (called 'test') from chalk. Although they resemble molluscs they are in fact single cellular protists, but they can be quite large for organisms with only one cell….”  Also be sure to check out the great micro photography of the foraminifers at the Foram Group Portrait site.

    • Introduction to the Foraminifera: UC Berkeley



This page was last completely edited
April 17, 2002
If you have a site you would like to see added to this or any other of Man and Mollusc Link pages; PLEASE notify me

This is a new counter system set up by Globel on
December 01, 2002




Links not working April 17, 2002

Cnidarian Research Institute - founded to facilitate the merger of professional aquarium sciences with research science and ecological conscience.*

Australian Museum:  Crustacean Page:

World Whale Web from Great Whales Foundation:

From SeaWorld & Bush Gardens:  Sharks and Their Relatives - a comprehensive reference from the Sea World education department.  Another GREAT site for teachers especially.*  Truth About the Monsters of the Deep – Lots of information on sharks.  Movies, glossary, quiz and lots more.  (Link is not working at this time;  I am trying to relocate this site,  Jan. 28,2001)*

The Robinson Research World of Knowledge: UC Berkeley;  “Included in this phylum are many of the unsegmented worms of the seashore. They have a proboscis which turns inside out when projected. Many species have from two to six eyes; some have several hundred. Locomotion is gliding, on a trail of slime. Some species seize prey by stabbing with a barb at the tip of the proboscis around the food, holding it fast with secretions.”

Newly Discovered Marine Sponges:

Site Links
Home Site Map General Zone Internet Resource Zone Kids Zone Teachers Zone Malacology Zone Search Site Mysteries Guest Book Contact

Articles Page Mollusc of the Moment Translation Page History What's New Molluscan Links Non- Molluscan Links Links Related Kid's Colouring Pages Avril's Fun Page Edible Molluscan Data Base Meet my Sponsors Information on becoming a sponsor Cone Wars page 1 Cone Wars page 2 Prehistoric Shellfish Gathering Naming a New Mollusk Species Octopuses are Smart Suckers Taxonomy of the Phylum Mollusca Voyages of the H.M. Bark Endeavour and its Replica Interesting Geoduck Facts Educational Moluscs Subject_index Endangered Molluscs Scaphopoda Links General Page 1 Links General Page 2 Collections for Sale Commercial Sites Cones Other Great Shell Collections: International Page 1 (A - I) Page 2 (J - Z) : and Non-Specific The Teres Complex Leproicypraea Mappa Erosaria Nebrites Form Labrospinosa TRITON TRITON #8 Ed Heiman's Personal Page Edible Molluscan Data Base Food Trade Goods Medicinal Uses Art and Architecture Music & Communication Personal Adornment Industry Offshoots Miscellaneous Uses Shell Collecting POLYPLACOPHORA MONOPLACOPHORA APLACOPHORA SCAPHOPODA GASTROPODA BIVALVA, or PELECYPODA CEPHALOPODA References Used